How to use diodes in Lab

using a diode in dcaclab

A diode is an electronic component which has two electrodes named as anode and cathode. The diodes are made by semiconductors such as germanium, silicon and selenium.

The diodes found many applications in electrical and electronics field such as rectifier, voltage regulators, switches, signal demodulators, signal modulators, signal mixers, and oscillators.

Why do we need to use the diode in our circuit ?

Since, the main function of the diode is to allow the flow of electric current in one direction (also known as forward bias of the diode) and does not allows the electric current to flow in the opposite direction (also known as reverse bias of the diode).

We can use the diode as an electric valve in the place where we need the flow of electric current in just a single direction or we need to protect our circuit or components from the negative or reverse current.

There are two type of diodes you will find in the DCACLAB.

  • Simple diode (Schottky Diode)
  • Zener diode

We will keep introducing the type of diodes to our virtual. Below are the steps you need to follow in order to use the diodes in DCACLAB.

Steps to use Schottky Diode in Lab

Step 1: Browse through the list of devices and components in the above list and locate the icon of a diode as shown in the screenshot below.

where to find diode in dcaclab

Step 2: Click on the icon of the diode as shown in the screenshot above, a diode will appear on the board as shown below.

diode in dcaclab

Step 3: Connect the anode and cathode of the diode in the circuit as per your need.

using a diode in dcaclab

Steps to use Zener Diode in Lab

Step 1: Browse through the list of devices and components in the above list and locate the icon of a zenner diode as shown in the screenshot below.

where to find zener diode in dcaclab

Step 2: Click on the icon of the zener diode as shown in the screenshot above, a zener diode will appear on the board as shown below.

zener diode in dcaclab

Step 3: Connect the zener diode in the circuit as per your need.

using a zener diode in dcaclab

Making a rectifier with the help of diodes

full wave rectifier

Above is the circuit of full wave rectifier which is made up of diodes. The diodes are arranged in an order so that they combines both the negative as well as positive half cycle of the AC voltage in order to form a DC voltage.

The DC voltage generated after the rectification does still has the pulse property which is filtered with the help of capacitor or inductor.

How to use switches in Lab

using the spdt switch in dcaclab

The switches are the basic electronic devices which are used to interrupt the flow of current in any circuit. The switches are apparently the binary devices which either ON (closed) or OFF (open).

Why do we need to use a switch in our circuit?

Since there would be certain cases when we need to turn the voltage supply ON and OFF. Instead of removing the source and connecting again, we can put an small switch in our circuit which does the turning the power ON and OFF just with a single push.

There are two type of switches you will find in the DCACLAB.

  • One way switch
  • DPDT switch

We will keep introducing the type of switches to our virtual. Below are the steps you need to follow in order to use the switches in DCACLAB.

Steps to use one way Switch in Lab

Step 1: Navigate through the list of devices/components in the above and locate the icon of a switch as shown in the screenshot below.

where to find one way switch

Step 2: Click on the icon of the switch as shown in the screenshot above, You will see a switch appear on the board as shown below.

one way switch in dcaclab

Step 3: Connect the switch in the circuit as per your need.

using one way switch in dcaclab

Steps to use DPDT Switch in Lab

Step 1: Navigate through the list of devices/components in the above and locate the icon of the DPDT Switch as shown in the screenshot below.

where to find DPDT switch

Step 2: Click on the icon of the DPDT Switch as shown in the screenshot above. A DPDT Switch appear on the board as shown in the screenshot below.

two way switch or DPDT switch in dcaclab

Step 3: Make the connection of DPDT Switch in the circuit as per your application.

using the DPDT switch in dcaclab

Making Polarity switcher with the DPDT switch

making polarity switch with the help of DPDT switch

Above snapshot shown is the circuit which is made with the help of DPDT switch. The Polarity switcher is used in order to change or turn the polarity of the DC voltage in order to control the direction of the current.

How to use Fuse in Lab

using fuse in dcaclab

A fuse is a device by which we can protect our circuit and its components from the high current. The fuse relies on the strip of wire or a conductor which gets melt when there is a current supply more than the required level, and so breaks the closed path of the circuit.

Below is the function of fuse explained.

Note : The UI (User Interface) of the lab may look like different since it worked in a flash back then instead of HTML5 which is used in the lab these days.

You have to follow the below steps in order to use the fuse in DCACLAB

Steps to make fuse connection in Lab

Step 1: Browse through the list of the devices and components in the above of the board and locate the fuse as shown below.

where to find fuse in dcaclab

Step 2: Click on the icon of the fuse from the options as shown above, You will see a fuse will appear as shown below.

fuse in dcaclab

Step 3: Connect the fuse in any circuit as per your requirement.

how to use fuse in dcaclab

Components in fuse properties

When the fuse appears, click on it and a gear sign will appear as shown below.

gear sign will appear on the fuse

Click on the gear sign and the box with the fuse properties will show up as shown below.

how to use the properties of fuse in dcaclab

In the above image there are few controllable properties of the fuse available to control which are briefly explained below.

properties of fuse in dcaclab

  1. In this portion you can set the rating of the Fuse you use in ampere. There are two ways you can set the value which are either to use the input box or the scrollbar. With the help of scrollbar you can set the maximum rating up to 10A, however you can set the value up to whatever maximum ampere value of the fuse you want to give with the help of input box.
  2. You can rotate the fuse on its position from 0° to 90°, 180° and 270°.

How does the Fuse works

working of a fuse

In the above image there are two identical circuits shown which has a fuse with the maximum current limit of 3.5 Ampere.

  1. In the circuit A there is a current of 2.419 Ampere flowing which is less than the current limit of the fuse (i.e. 3.5 Ampere).
  2. In the circuit B the current would be more than 3.5 Ampere which caused the fuse to blow instead of blowing the bulb from that high current.

In the above example shown we can see how the simple and cheap fuse can protect our useful and expensive components from the fault current.

fuse failed to protect the device in dcaclab

There are two identical circuits shown above which are similar to the previous circuits explained. This time we have demonstrated that what happens if we use the fuse of rating more than the fault current to flow. In both the cases the current is less than or equal to the specification in the fuse.

  1. In the Circuit A the component works at the better condition when the current is sufficient for its performance. In the case if we use the fuse with more than the required specification we will not see its disadvantage.
  2. In the Circuit B there is a current which is more than the sufficient current and the fuse we have used too has the Current specification more than required value. As the result the fuse failed to prevent our component from the high current and so our bulb got burned up.

In the above example, we have learned that how it is to important to use the fuse with the correct rating.

Why should we use the Fuse

There are always the cases when the current exceeds from the decided or the desired amperes which can cause a lot of harm to our circuit as well as its components.

Many circuits contained a handwork and the expensive components which are needed to protect in all cause. The fuse is the best as well as the cheapest way you can protect your hard work and those expensive components.

Advantages of using fuse

  • The fuse if the cheapest device with which we can protect our circuit as well as expensive components.
  • It does not require any maintenance for further application.
  • Unlike to circuit breakers, the fuse does not need our interaction to operate. However, you have to replace the fuse when its burned.

How to use Relay in LAB

using relay in dcaclab

A relay is a switch operated electrically which consist of an electromagnet in order to operate the switching operation manually inside the relay.

In order to use the Relay in the DCACLAB you have to follow the steps below.

Steps to make a Relay Connection in Lab

Step 1: Navigate through the list of devices and components in the above options and locate the relay as shown in the screenshot below.

where to find relay in dcaclab

Step 2: Click on the Relay as shown in the screenshot above or grab the icon of the relay from the options, You will see a relay on the board below as shown in the below screenshot.

relay in dcaclab

Step 3: Connect the required ports of the relay as per your application.

using relay in dcaclab

Components in Relay Properties

While working with a Relay in the lab click on it and a Gear shape will be appear as shown in the image below.

gear sign will appear on the relay

Click on the gear icon and the property of the relay will appear.

properties of relay in dcaclab

  1. In this you can control the magnitude as well as the range of the inductance of the coil used in the relay switch. There are ranges nano, µ, milli, K, M and G available and beside that there is a option Tune by which we can vary the fractional values such as nano, µ and milli.
  2. The On current of the relay is defined as the minimum current required to drive the relay switch to on position. There are on current can be varied in the range of nano, µ, milli, K, M and G and also we can control its fractional part such in the order of nano, µ and milli.
  3. The resistance of the coil in the relay can be controlled in the range of  nano, µ, milli, K, M and G and its fractional part can be controlled in the order of nano, µ and milli.

How to connect a relay switch in a circuit

In the below circuit there is an AC power source used to drive the two loads. The relay acts as a 2-way switch which drives one load when the switch is turned off and drives the another load when the load is on.

using relay in dcaclab - switch off mode

Case 1: In this condition the relay switch is OFF and so the AC power is supplied through the load connected in the beneath (A bulb as shown in the above screenshot).

using relay in dcaclab - switch on mode

Case 2: In this condition the relay switch is ON and so the AC power is supplied through the load in the above (A bulb as shown in the above screenshot).

 

How to use Potentiometer in lab

gear sign will appear on the potentiometer

A potentiometer is a resistor which has three terminal and a sliding contact between the center terminal and the two other end terminals which acts like a variable resistor or an adjustable voltage divider.

You have to follow the simple steps below in order to use the potentiometer in your circuit as per your application.

Steps to make Potentiometer Connection in Lab

Step 1: Navigate through devices/components in the above options and locate the icon of potentiometer as shown in the snapshot below.

where to find potentiometer in dcaclab

Step 2: Click on the icon of the Potentiometer as shown in the screenshot above or grab the icon, You will see a  potentiometer on the board below.

potentiometer in dcaclab

Step 3: Connect the Potentiometer in the circuit as per your application.

using potentiometer in dcaclab

Controlling the properties of the Potentiometer

While working with a circuit with a potentiometer all you have to do is to click on the potentiometer and a Gear shape will be displayed near to the potentiometer as shown in the image below.

gear sign will appear on the potentiometer

Click on the gear icon shown in the above screenshot and a box with potentiometer properties will show up as shown in the screen shot below.

how to use property of potentiometer in dcaclab

The Potentiometer can be controlled either rotating the wipe at the center of the Potentiometer (which is similar to the real life method) or you can use the wipe bar in the Potentiometer properties in order to control the resistance value of the Potentiometer.

Components in Potentiometer Properties

properties of potentiometer in dcaclab

  1. In the Track Resistance you can control the resistance value of the preset which is from one end terminal to another end of the terminal, Also we can select the fractional value from the options of nano, µ, mili, x1, K, M, G.
  2. With the help of Slidebar we can control the resistance value of the potentiometer which is similar to controlling the track resistance in the above.
  3. In this you can tune or control the resistance value of a potentiometer in a fractional scale such as nano, µ, and milli Ω.
  4. The part is used to slide the wipe of the potentiometer.

Potentiometer Working

In the below example a Potentiometer of 1 KΩ has been selected in order to demonstrate the working of the potentiometer. There are two multimeters have been used in order to measure the resistance of both that is the left as well as right side of the potentiometer.

potentiometer at 25% wiper

In the snapshot the wiper of the potentiometer is set to the 25% from the left due to which the left side shows the resistance of 250Ω and the right side shows the resistance of 750Ω.

potentiometer at 50% wiper

In the above snapshot the wiper of the potentiometer is set to the 50% from the left due to which the both the left as well as the right side shows the resistance of 500Ω.

potentiometer at 75% wiper

In the snapshot the wiper of the potentiometer is set to the 75% from the left due to which the left side shows the resistance of 750Ω and the right side shows the resistance of 250Ω.

Controlling the wipe of the potentiometer

varying resistance of potentiometer in dcaclab

In the above screenshot there are four identical circuit setup named as A, B and C, the track resistance of the potentiometer is 1 Ω in each .

  • In the circuit A the position of the wipe is at zero hence there is 0 Ω resistance value in the potentiometer which results the whole current of 1.5 A to flow.
  • In the circuit B the position of the wipe is at the half of it so there is 0.5 Ω resistance value in the potentiometer due to which there is a current flow of 0.993 A.
  • In the circuit C the wipe is positioned to the full length which results the 1 Ω resistance value in the potentiometer which causes the 0.75 A of current to flow.

How to use Resistor in lab

how to use resistance properties in dcaclab

Follow the simple steps below in order to use the resistance in your circuit as per your application.

Steps to use Resistance in Lab

Step 1: Navigate through the list of the devices/components in the above and locate the symbol of Resistance as shown in the snapshot below.

where to find resistor in dcaclab

Step 2: Click on the icon of the Resistance as shown in the screenshot above or grab the icon, a resistance will appear on the below board.

resistance in dcaclab

Step 3: Connect the resistance in the circuit and set its value as per your application.

using resistance in dcaclab

Controlling the properties of the Resistor

When you are working with a circuit click on the resistor and a Gear shape will be displayed near to the resistance as shown in the image below.

gear sign will appear on the resistance

Click on the gear icon shown in the above screenshot and a box with resistor property will show up as shown in the screen shot below.

how to use resistance properties in dcaclab

There is an option in the properties labeled as “Input Method” here are two options to select. You can select either options from “By color Code” or “By text“.

Resistance property by Color Code

resistor properties in dcaclab

  1. The input method is the same as what explained before, in the screenshot above the input method is set to “by color code“.
  2. In this section the four color of the resistance is shown with the corresponding value (explained in below screenshots).
  3. The Maximum and Minimum value of the resistance with the (+ and -) errors are represented with the resistance value below them.
  4. In this the resistance can be rotated at its point in the circuit, the resistance can be rotated  from 0° to 90°, 180° and 270°.

color code for resistance

In the above screenshot the color with its corresponding value for the first as well as second band is shown which has the range from 0 to 9.

color code for resistance 2

In the above screenshot the color and its corresponding value for the multiplier part of the resistance is shown. The range of the multiplier part is from 10^-2 to 10^9.

color code for resistance 3

In the above screenshot the color and its corresponding value for the tolerance of the resistance is shown. The range of the tolerance is from (+ & -) 1% to (+ & -) 20%.

Resistance property by Text

resistor properties in dcaclab - resistor property by text

  1. The input method is the same as what explained before, in the screenshot above the input method is set to “by text“.
  2. In this you can directly enter the value of the resistor and select the range or the order value of the resistance.
  3. In this you can set the value of a resistance by scrolling the scrollbar.
  4. In this you can control the small fraction of the resistance value in the range of milli, µ (micro) and nano ohms.
  5. In this the resistance can be rotated at its point in the circuit, the resistance can be rotated  from 0° to 90°, 180° and 270°.

Connecting Resistances in parallel

connecting resistances in parallel

In the above snapshot shown the two resistances of 1 Ω and 3Ω are connected in parallel. The Battery is connected as a power source which have 1.5V and 2.007A of voltage and current respectively.

We know that the voltage is the same across the parallel loads/devices, hence both the resistors would be having same voltage of 1.5V. However the current is divided in between the resistors as per their value.

We know that the, I=V/R

where, I = current, V = voltage and R = Resistance

with the help of the above expression we can calculate the current across the two 1 Ω and 3Ω resistors.

Current across 1 Ω resistor = 1.5/1 = 1.5A

Current across 3Ω resistor = 1.5/3 = 0.5A

According to the Kirchhoff’s Current law at the junction where 1 Ω and 3Ω resistances are connected in parallel the sum of the Current across 1 Ω resistor and the Current across 3 Ω resistor has to be equal to the current driven by the voltage source.

I (Source Current) = (Current across 1 Ω resistor + Current across 3 Ω resistor)

I = 1.5 + 0.5 = 2A (which is equal to the source current in actual)

Resistances with different Error Factors

resistances with different error factors

In the above snapshot the four resistances A, B, C and D are shown in which the resistances A, B and C have been selected to be have error factor of 2%, 5% and 10% respectively, the resistance property i.e Input method of D is set to “by text”.

The error factor is denoted by the fourth color strip of the resistor, with the error factor the more practical value of resistance is known. The error factor is effected by various factors such as component used to make the resistor, amount of solder used and many other factors.

As shown in the screen shot above we can get a basic idea that the less error factor we have (which is near to zero) the more precise value of the resistance in practical we will get.

The D represents the ideal condition in which the resistance is of exact value which we need in our application.

Note : The D condition in which the resistance has an ideal value does not exist in real life. We can use this feature in the lab in order to check the accuracy of our circuit.

How to use Battery in Lab

how to use battery properties in dcaclab

You have to follow steps in order to use the battery in DCACLab.

Steps to use Battery in Lab

Step 1: Navigate through the list of the devices/components and locate the symbol of battery as shown in image below.

where to find battery in dcaclab

Step 2: Click on the icon of the battery as shown in the image above or grab the symbol, a battery will appear on the below board.

battery in dcaclab

Step 3: Connect the battery in your circuit as per your need.

how to use battery in dcaclab

Controlling the properties of the battery

While working on the circuit click on the battery, a Gear like icon will appear near to the battery as shown in the image below.

gear sign will appear on the battery

Click on the gear icon and the whole property of the battery will be shown which you can control and change as per your circuit need.

how to use battery properties in dcaclab

You can control the voltage of the battery and you can flip as well as rotate it as per your requirement.

Components in a Battery Property

battery properties in dcaclab

  1. Here you can change the voltage of the battery, you can either enter put the desired voltage in the box or you can swipe the scroll bar in order to set the voltage of the battery upto the desired volts.
  2. In this part you are able to control the fraction value of voltage. The section has options to vary the voltage of battery in mili volt, micro volt and nano volt.
  3. By using the check box you can flip the battery at its position in order to turn the terminals to opposite.
  4. In this you can rotate the battery, you can rotate it from 0° to 90°, 180° and 270°.

You can practice working with the battery on the circuit simulator.

What is a Battery

In general a Battery is defined as the combination of two or more cells. A cell is a device which stores electrical power, the energy stored in the form of chemical energy which is then converted into electrical energy with the help of chemical reactions in order to create the flow of electron.

The Battery of a cell has three main components.

  • Annode (Negative side of the battery)
  • Cathode (Positive side of the battery)
  • Electrolyte (A substance which reacts with the annode and cathode in order to create current flow)

Connecting batteries in parallel

Connecting batteries in parallel

Above image shows the resultant voltage across the load when we connect the two batteries in parallel. As per the circuit connection shown above if the two battery of 1.5V and 2.5V are connected in parallel then the resultant voltage will become 2V.

Note : E = (E1 R2 + E2 R1) / (R1 + R2)

Where,

E = Resultant voltage

E1 = Voltage of the first battery

R1 = Internal resistance or the first battery

E2 = Voltage of the second battery

R2 = Internal resistance or the second battery

Connecting batteries in series

Connecting batteries in series

Above image shows the resultant voltage across the load when we connect the two batteries in series. As per the circuit connection shown above if the two battery of 1.5V and 2.5V are connected in series then the resultant voltage will become the sum of both batteries voltage that is 4V.

Note : E = E1 + E2

where,

E = Resultant voltage

E1 = Voltage of the first battery

E2 = Voltage of the second battery

Battery polarities

Battery polarities

Above screenshot demonstrates that how the polarity effects the direction of the rotation of fan in the Lab.

Comparison of AC and DC signals

Difference between AC and DC voltage with the help of oscilloscope

In the above figure shows the difference between the AC voltage source and the battery using the oscilloscope in the lab.

Changing the voltage of the battery

using battery at different voltages

Above image shows that how the change in voltage of the battery reflects in the circuit. By using multimeter the voltage of the battery is measured.

How to use Multimeter in Lab

Using multimeter in dcaclab

In order to use the multimeter in dcaclab you need to follow the steps below.

Steps to use Multimeter in DCACLab

Step 1: Navigate through the list of the devices/components and locate the symbol of multimeter as shown in image.

where to find multimeter in dcaclab

Step 2: Click on the icon of the multimeter as shown in the image above or grab the symbol, you will see the multimeter on the board.

Multimeter in dcaclab

Step 3: Set the mode and grab the cable in order to use the multimeter with the respective application.

Using multimeter in dcaclab

How to measure DC Current in Ampere with Multimeter in DCACLab

Measuring dc current in Ampere with multimeter in dcaclab

In the above image shown the multimeter is set to measure the DC current up to 3A. The multimeter is connected in series to the circuit in order to measure the flow of current through the circuit.

How to measure DC Voltage with Multimeter in DCACLab

Measuring dc voltage with multimeter in dcaclab

In the above image shown the multimeter is set to measure the DC voltage up to 3V. The multimeter is connected in parallel to the load to the circuit in order to measure the voltage being consumed by the Load on the circuit.

Measuring Resistance with Multimeter in DCACLab

Measuring resistance with multimeter in dcaclab

In the above image shown the multimeter is set to measure the resistance (in Ω) of any electrical device or load.

You can play with the above circuit in here.

How to use Oscilloscope in Lab

how to use oscilloscope in dcaclab

Follow the below simple steps in order to use the oscilloscope in dcaclab.

Step 1: Navigate through the list of the devices/components as shown in image.

where to find oscilloscope in dcaclab

Step 2: Click on the oscilloscope icon, the oscilloscope will then appear in the board below. 

oscilloscope in dcaclab

Step 3: Grab the probes to measure the voltage of any point or define the signal at any point of the circuit.

how to use oscilloscope in dcaclab

How to use Time and Voltage Division in an Oscillator

using oscillator with different time and voltage division

In the above image shown of an oscilloscope there are two pivots, upper pivot is used to vary the time per division in the x axis and lower pivot is used to vary the voltage per division in the y axis.

You can play with the above circuit in here.

What Can Oscilloscope Measure

With the Oscilloscope you can define the quantities like amplitude, frequency and other waveform characteristics in a Signal or AC current.

In easy way,

With the help of oscilloscope we can measure both the characteristics based on time as well as voltage.

Timing characteristics

The time unit is shown by the x axis in the oscilloscope, with the help of time unit we can define the characteristics such as Frequency and period, Duty cycle and Rise and fall time.

Frequency and period

The frequency of the signal or a current (AC Current) is defined as the number of cycle the waveform completes in one second. The period of the current (AC Current) or a signal is defined as the opposite to the frequency that is the number of second each wave cycle takes.

Duty cycle

The duty cycle is calculated as the percentage of the signal weather it is positive or negative, The duty cycle is defined in two types, they are positive duty cycle and negative duty cycle.

With the help of Duty cycle we can define the ratio of the time period the signal is positive and the signal is negative.

Rise and fall time

The AC voltage or a signal does not instantaneously go 0v to 12v, they rise to the peak voltage instead. The Rise Time is defined as the time duration in which the signal goes from low point to high point, The Fall Time is defines the opposite that is the time duration in which the signal goes from high point to low point.

Voltage characteristics

The voltage unit is shown by the y axis in the oscilloscope. With the help of Voltage unit we can define the characteristics such as Amplitude, Maximum and minimum voltages and Mean and average voltages.

Amplitude

The amplitude is defined as the magnitude of the voltage or a signal. There are many ways to define the amplitude, in one method the difference between high voltage point to low voltage point also known as peak-to-peak amplitude. In another method the distance from high voltage point or low voltage point to 0V.

Maximum and minimum voltages

With the help of Oscilloscope you can very easily define that how high and low does the voltage of your signal gets.

Mean and average voltages

With the help of oscilloscope you can very easily calculate the average or mean voltage of the signal. Also with the help of the oscilloscope you can define the average of the signal’s maximum as well as minimum voltage.

Do write on the comment below that how did you used the oscilloscope.

Click to see the use of oscilloscope in dcaclab.