These rectifiers have some fundamental advantages over their halfwave rectifier counterparts. The average (DC) output voltage is higher. For the halfwave rectifier, the output of this rectifier has much less ripple than that smoother output waveform.
We use four diodes, one for each half of the wave. Diode conducts in turn when its anode terminal is positive. It respect to the transformer center point. This circuit gives an overview of the working of a fullwave rectifier. A circuit that produces the same output waveform as the fullwave rectifier circuit is that of the Full Wave Bridge Rectifier.
Difference between Full Wave Rectifier and Half Wave Rectifier:
Based on different parameters, the difference between the fullwave and the halfwave rectifier is discussed below. The difference between these two rectifiers includes the following.
Half Wave Rectifier  Full Wave Rectifier 




























To rectify both halfcycles of a sine wave, the bridge rectifier uses four diodes. A “bridge” configuration is secondary winding of the transformer connect on one side of the diode bridge. It network and the load on the other side.
During positive half cycle:
This circuit’s operation is easily understood one halfcycle at a time. During positive half cycle of the source, diodes D1 and D2 conduct while D3 and D4 are reverse biased. This produces a positive load voltage across the load resistor (note the plusminus polarity across the load resistor).
During the next halfcycle:
the source voltage polarity reverses. Now, D3 and D4 are forward biased while D1 and D2 are reverse biased. This also produces a positive load voltage across the load resistor as before.
DC Value of a FullWave Signal:
Because a bridge rectifier produces a fullwave output, the formula for calculating average DC value is the same as that given for the fullwave rectifier:
This equation tells us that the DC value of a fullwave signal is about 63.6 percent of the peak value. For example, if the peak voltage of the fullwave signal is 10V, the dc voltage will be 6.36V when we measure the halfwave signal with a DC voltmeter, the reading will equal the average DC value.
A Secondorder Approximation
In reality, we do not get a perfect fullwave voltage across the load resistor. Because of the barrier potential, the diode does not turn on until the source voltage reaches about 0.7V. And as the bridge rectifier operates two diodes at a time, two diode drops (0.7 * 2 = 1.4V) of the source voltage are lost in the diode. So the peak output voltage is given by:
Output Frequency:
The fullwave rectifier inverts each negative half cycle, doubling the number of positive half cycles. Because of this, fullwave output has twice as many cycles as the input.
Therefore the frequency of the fullwave signal is double the input frequency.
For example, if the line frequency is 60Hz, the output frequency will be 120Hz.
Filtering the Output of a Rectifier
The output we get from a fullwave rectifier is a pulsating DC voltage that increases to a maximum and then decreases to zero.
We do not need this kind of DC voltage. What we need is a steady and constant DC voltage, free of any voltage variation or ripple, as we get from the battery.
To obtain such a voltage, we need to filter the fullwave signal. One way to do this is to connect a capacitor, known as a smoothing capacitor, across the load resistor as shown below.
Initially, the capacitor is uncharged. During the first quartercycle, diodes D1 and D2 are forward biased, so the capacitor starts charging. The charging continues until the input reaches its peak value. At this point, the capacitor voltage equals Vp. After the input voltage reaches its peak, it begins to decrease. As soon as the input voltage is less than Vp, the voltage across the capacitor exceeds the input voltage which turns off the diodes. As the diodes are off, the capacitor discharges through the load resistor and supplies the load current, until the next peak is arrived. When the next peak arrives, diodes D3 and D4 conduct briefly and recharges the capacitor to the peak value.
Disadvantage:
The only disadvantage of the bridge rectifier is that the output voltage is two diode drops (1.4V) less than the input voltage. This disadvantage is only a problem in very low voltage power supplies. For instance, if the peak source voltage is only 5V, the load voltage will have a peak of only 3.6V. But if the peak source voltage is 100 V, the load voltage will be close to a perfect fullwave voltage (the diode drops are negligible).